Mitochondria are semiautonomous organelles present in almost all eukaryotic cells in quantities ranging from a single copy to several thousand per cell. Important mitochondrial functions include ATP production by oxidative…phosphorylation, ?2-oxidation of fatty acids and metabolism of amino acids and lipids. Furthermore, mitochondria have a prominent role in the initiation of apoptosis (i.e., an organism’s normal and controlled death of cells).
Due to their involvement in ATP production, dysfunction of mitochondria is involved in a range of pathologies known…
Claus Desler, Ph.D., and Lene Juel Rasmussen, Ph.D.
Given that there is a strong genetic component underlying SLE, much research effort has been directed to illuminating the specific genetic details. It became evident from murine and human studies…that SLE is a polygenic disease with multi-factorial origin. More than two dozen genes have been reproducibly and robustly associated with SLE susceptibility, and these can be broadly divided into two categories:
(i) common genetic polymorphisms, mostly uncovered through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and
While 5-10% of women with breast cancer have mutations in one of a number of tumor suppressor genes inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, …most breast cancers have somatic genetic changes which act as both prognostic and predictive factors. Oncotype DX® and MammaPrint are two gene-expression assays which categorize women with early stage breast cancer to either low or high risk for distant recurrence, allowing physicians to tailor their use of adjuvant…
Jennifer Barrick, M.S., C.G.C., Nancie Petrucelli, M.S., C.G.C., and Michael S. Simon, M.D., M.P.H.
Taste perception influences food preference and intake. Sensory inputs from taste receptors provide information regarding the identity and flavor of food. Taste sensations can induce satiety and…reinforce eating. Taste bud density, differences in salivary constituents, genetic variation in taste receptors, and exocrine and endocrine factors may all influence food intake and, therefore, influence risk for nutrition-related conditions including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cancer.
There are five widely accepted taste…
Hillary L. Shaw, M.D., Cedrick D. Dotson, Ph.D., Steven D. Munger, Ph.D., and Nanette Steinle, M.D.
Olfaction is determined by the odorant receptors (ORs) in the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) of the main olfactory epithelium. Mammalian ORs are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed on…the cell-surface membrane at the tip of the dendrites in the OSNs. ORs, first cloned in 1991 by Buck and Axel, comprise the largest gene family among all GPCRs. Approximately 400 genes are annotated as ORs in humans, whereas more than 1000 genes encode distinct…
Hanyi Zhuang, Ph.D., and Hiroaki Matsunami, Ph.D.